DD Foundation


Research and development of democracy in Estonia

Fundamentally, there are two major threats to democracies: opponents of democracy (both internal and external) and stagnation. Opponents were not dealt with in this process and the report does not discuss them.

However, stagnation is a threat only because the world is changing. If there were no change, there would be no need to change democratic institutions either. However, technology (social media, digital journalism, artificial intelligence), the natural environment (climate, pollution, loss of biodiversity), the economy (globalization, inequality), culture, science and much more are changing. So democracy must also change and develop. The report reflects today’s state of research and development of Estonian democracy.


The report was born out of a short co-creation process, which involved researchers from Estonian universities, the Chancellery of the Riigikogu, non-governmental organizations and various democracy experts. Between larger meetings, work in thematic groups and individual interviews took place.

The organization of the process was managed by the DD Center for Democracy. The center is a non-profit entity operating under the DD foundation, created in cooperation between non-governmental organizations and the University of Tartu’s Johan Skytte Institute for Political Studies, whose aim is to promote democracy.

The report was prepared in the framework of a project financed by the Norwegian Fund for Active Citizens, which is mediated by the Open Estonia Fund in cooperation with the Association of Non-Governmental Organizations.


Published: May 2023